This research focuses on the area known as the mining district of Linares-La Carolina, located on the eastern foothills of the Sierra Morena, N/NE province of Jaén, Andalucia, Spain. Geologically, this area is located in the southern border of the hesperic massif, a lithologic area with a prevailing presence of metamorphic rocks. This area is rich in mineralized faults grouped in high-density networks of veins abounding in copper minerals. Remains of mines and settlement ascribed to the Copper Age and Bronze Age on the basin of the Rumblar river show that extractions in this area started in late Prehistoric. It extended over the Iberian period and survived under the Punic period. However, after the Roman conquest, in the context of the II Punic War, there began intensive exploitation of plumb-silver and copper mines in the mining area of the western Sierra Morena. The author began investigations in 2004, comprising archaeological prospecting, literature reviews and source analyses, and a study of inscriptions and coins. So far 69 ancient mining-metallurgy sites (mines, slagheaps, smelting sites, etc.) have been explored, allowing the author to draw a range of conclusions regarding the administrative, fiscal, political and social organisation of mining within the Romanization process in the Iberian Peninsula.